YOSE (first half of the fourth century), Ereẓ Israel amora. Although always mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud without patronymic, he is to be identified with R. Yose b. Zevida (Men. 70b: cf. TJ, Ḥal. 1:1, 57c). He transmitted the teachings of Ilai, Ze'ira, and Jeremiah. Yose became a close associate of R. jonah , and their joint teachings and discussions fill the pages of the Jerusalem Talmud just as those of Abbaye and Rava characterize the Babylonian Talmud. Yose and Jonah together attended weddings (TJ, Ber. 6:5, 10c), visited the sick (TJ, Shab. 6:9, 8c), and comforted mourners (TJ, Sanh. 6:12, 23d). They also were lifelong business partners in the production of wine (TJ, Ma'as. Sh. 4:9, 55b). When informed of the death of Yose's son, Jonah fasted the rest of the day (TJ, Ned. 8:1, 40d). Yose and Jonah permitted the baking of bread on the Sabbath when compelled to do so at the time of Ursicinus' campaign in Israel in 351 (TJ, Shev. 4:2, 35a). Later they were respectfully greeted by Ursicinus when they went to meet him in Antioch (TJ, Ber. 5:1, 9a). After R. ammi moved his academy to Caesarea, Yose and Jonah succeeded to the rectorate of the academy at Tiberias. They had many disciples, some of whom became the leaders of the next generation. Among Yose's prominent students were his own son, Eleazar, and Mani, the son of Jonah. Following Jonah's death (TJ, Ma'as. Sh. 4: 9, 55b) Yose was acknowledged as the leader of Palestinian Jewry, and he received inquiries from as far away as Alexandria, Egypt (TJ, Kid. 3:14, 64d). He sent a detailed calendar to Diaspora Jewry, cautioning them to continue to observe the second day of the festivals (TJ, Er. 3:9, 21c: cf. Beẓah 4b). He was so esteemed by his generation that upon his death his students who were kohanim defiled themselves by carrying his bier (TJ, Ber. 3:1, 6a). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hyman, Toledot, 713–7; Ḥ. Albeck, Mavo la-Talmudim (1969), 334f.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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